Risk Of Contracting Coronavirus Infection?

Groups That Have More Chances Of Contracting Coronavirus

Risk Of Contracting Coronavirus Infection?

It is vital that we all know which groups of people are more vulnerable to COVID-19 than others. Not only is this knowledge useful to individuals, but it will benefit nations and bring us one step closer to finding a way to minimize casualty. Armed with this data, governments can implement measures that will safeguard the wellbeing of everyone and eliminate COVID-19 deaths altogether. As individuals too, we can be extra wary if we are categorized within the danger groups.

Risk factors

It has been observed that in certain people, coronavirus is more damaging than others. They tend to develop an infection that becomes dangerous and lethal. If doctors and healthcare professionals have an insight into who is at greater risk, then they will deploy all steps to provide robust care to these people. Governments can make special provisions for them.

So here is what researchers and doctors have realized from experience over the past 3 months during which COVID-19 became a pandemic-

  1. The elderly: In China, more than 80% of the people who came down with COVID-19 are 30 years or older (30-79 years). Teenagers and people in their 20s, even though they socialize and travel as much as their older peers do not seem to be as vulnerable. The fatality rate is the highest among people in their 80s. This trend could indicate that other illnesses and weakened immunity could compound the infection caused by COVID-19.
  1. Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome: Another stark trait noticed was that half the people (age 22-94) who tested positive for COVID-19 in Wuhan developed Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome or ARDS. Half of the people who had contracted ARDS passed away. ARDS triggers fluid accumulation in the alveoli (air sacs) of the lungs. This curtails the amount of oxygen that the lungs can breathe in and in turn causes an acute oxygen shortage all over the body. 9% of the patients who did not acquire ARDS died. That means when ARDS sets in, a person is at a greater risk of dying. Moreover, ARDS is more likely to afflict senior citizens than the younger populace.   The average age of the people who came down with ARDS was 61.
  1. Youngsters are safe: People under the age of 18 are the safest with only 2.4% of the reported cases being youngsters of this age group.
  2. Male vs. Female: Gender too may make a person more vulnerable. Interestingly, statistics found that for every 100 women affected by COVID-19, there were 106 men who had contracted the same disease.  WHO also made the same discovery- 51% of the COVID-19 patients were men.
  3.  Concomitant illnesses: Comorbidities too have a say in the lethality of COVID-19. A person with any one of the following illnesses is 79% more likely to require intensive care treatment-
  • Cardiovascular disease
  • Hepatitis B
  • Diabetes
  • Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease
  • Cancer
  • Chronic kidney disease
  1. Pregnancy: Surprisingly pregnancy does not tend to give a severe turn to COVID-19 (pregnancy weakens the immunity). Only one COVID-19 patient gave birth to a baby who tested positive for the virus and it raised the pertinent question on whether vertical transmission (mother to child) of coronavirus is possible. But no other baby born of a mom with COVID-19 contracted the infection. But still, the possibility of vertical transmission cannot be overlooked.

Conclusion

So what it boils down to is this- if you are an elderly person, a man or have a medical history of certain illnesses, you need to be extra careful since COVID-19 is more dangerous for you.

 

Coronavirus is spreading at an alarming rate, and is something you should be cautious against! So, don’t leave space for any confusion! If you have medical queries on Coronavirus, call us on 080-47193456

 

Quarantine, isolation and social distancing

Quarantine, Social Distancing & Isolation: Understanding the Pandemic

Quarantine, isolation and social distancing

COVID-19 continues to wreak destruction across the globe. Italy, China, Iran and Spain are devastated. The death toll in these countries is increasing. The unabated pandemic has left the healthcare system in these countries reeling.

The pandemic can take on similar proportions anywhere in the globe. And the only way to stop that from happening is by implementing a few measures. That is why we get to hear frequent mention of the terms quarantine, isolation, social distancing, and lockdown.

So what exactly do these words mean and are these precautions effective? Read on to find out.

Anatomy of a pandemic

Let us understand the basics first. How does COVID-19 spread? This virus is just another strain of coronavirus (a family to which SARS and MERS also belong). It spreads from one person to another in two ways-

  • When an infected person coughs or sneezes within 1 metre of others
  • When healthy individuals touch something touched by an infected person

Basically, COVID-19 spreads from human to human, through contact (direct and indirect). So the only way to prevent transmission is to break the contact. By reducing exposure of a person to the virus, we can ensure that he/she does not contract it.

This brings us to the three measures that healthcare professionals and governments across the world are urging us to adopt- quarantine, isolation and social distancing. Let us understand these concepts better.

Quarantine

Quarantine first began to be practised way back in the middle ages during the dreaded bubonic plague. Since then it has repeatedly been implemented to stall any contagious outbreak.

Quarantine means segregating from the population those people who may have been exposed to the virus or are displaying the symptoms of the disease. On the off chance that they have indeed contracted COVID-19, healthy people will not come in contact with them and the virus will naturally not enter their bodies. This is how transmission can be prevented. In the meanwhile, the people in quarantine undergo tests, receive treatment if needed, get better and are discharged by doctors.

But the word ‘quarantine’ strikes fear in the hearts of many. But really, there is nothing to be afraid of. In fact, the alternative is scarier. When you are quarantine, you will be well taken care of and the public too will be safe.

Isolation

Isolation is the same as quarantine with the difference that only people who have tested positive (in this instance for COVID-19) are removed from the public and transported to a safe location where they are treated. Sometimes people in quarantine whose results came back positive are shifted to an isolation ward.

Isolation and quarantine can also be personal. If you feel that you may have contracted the illness or been exposed to it, you can insulate yourself from the world till you get better.

Social distancing

Social distancing is something we all have to rigorously impose upon ourselves. It requires us to stay home and avoid unnecessary travel. This way we reduce the risk of exposure to coronavirus and can flatten the upward curve of the disease.

Quarantine and isolation: The legality

India’s federal structure and constitution have made health a state subject. So the Centre has very little power to influence how states respond to a health calamity. The Epidemic Act of 1897 allows it to issue guidelines and act as a coordinator. Which is why the central government urged states to invoke section 2 of this Act, which bestows every state with the right to-

  • Prevent social gatherings
  • Close educational institutes
  • Regulate the working hours of government offices
  • Ask the private sector to implement work from home
  • Segregation of people suspected of having contracted the illness
  • Inspection of all people travelling by trains (not aeroplanes as they did not exist when this legislation was drafted)
  • Inspect any vessel or ship at any port

All states have come together and are co-operating with the centre to contain the disease. So even though the Act needs to be amended to incorporate changes reflecting the new challenges of an ever-evolving world, quarantine and isolation are enforceable by the state governments. 

Conclusion

All it will take to subdue coronavirus is good sense and responsibility. Let us pledge to help humanity by not being averse to social distancing, quarantine and isolation.

CTA: Coronavirus is spreading at an alarming rate, and is something you should be cautious against! So, don’t leave space for any confusion! If you have medical queries on Coronavirus, call us on 080-47193456

 

REFERENCE

  1.     Clevelandclinic
  2.     qz
Coronavirus Lab Testing

COVID-19 Testing FAQs

Coronavirus Lab Testing

If you have been in close contact with someone who has COVID-19, if you are in a community where COVID-19 is spreading, if you have any symptoms of COVID-19 or if you have recently travelled to a place affected with COVID-19, call and report your healthcare provider. If you don’t, then you may be putting your own life at risk and also affecting the lives of others around you. Be aware, seek medical care and let the healthcare professionals decide if you need to be tested or put on isolation.

Where can I get the COVID-19 test done?

Out of 57 government laboratories, 51 are controlled by the Indian Council of Medical Research (ICMR). They are responsible for carrying out the primary test. All you need to do is call the helpline numbers released by state governments and they will guide you to the nearest testing facility.

The secondary testing confirms COVID-19 after the primary test results come back positive. Previously, Pune had the apex lab for this facility, which was later increased to 13 labs and then 15 labs equipped with secondary testing facilities. NCDC Delhi is also engaged in testing. 1 lab facility in Leh has been designated to help collect samples and facilitate the transport of those for further testing.

Currently, only government labs are conducting tests to detect coronavirus. ICMR and NIV are not using commercial kits. Instead they are using testing material made in India. Probes are being imported from Germany.

How much does it cost?

The testing for COVID-19 is free for the patients and is done by government labs and hospitals, or sample collecting centres.  In the case of a primary test, a health professional collects your sample of saliva or mucus. The nucleic acid is extracted from the sample and sent for screening against the Wuhan strain of coronavirus.

The secondary test takes place in which the samples are re-tested after the result of the primary test is confirmed. Once this comes out positive, the doctors will confirm that you are infected with the novel coronavirus.

How long do the tests take?

Primary testing takes 2-4 hours and secondary testing takes another 3-4 hours. The whole process slows down if you are tested in a lab that does not have secondary testing facilities and the samples have to be taken to a secondary testing lab.

What is the COVID-19 testing strategy in India?

In India, the testing protocol has been restricted to only people who show symptoms. According to ICMR, since there has been no community transmission yet, people who have travelled abroad, especially to coronavirus affected countries and those who have direct contact with such people are being monitored.

These people are advised to self-quarantine and if they show any symptoms, they have to undergo tests.

Why are only people who travelled abroad being tested?

In order to prevent the nation from reaching the stage of community transmission of the disease, various state governments have started shutting down schools, colleges, cinema halls and more. Since India has no community transmission yet, only people who travelled abroad are being tested.

What happens when you are tested positive?

Once you are tested positive in the primary testing, your saliva or mucus samples are taken for secondary testing. When it gets tested positive, it means you have contracted the novel coronavirus. This means you will be put under isolation in the hospital and receive proper treatment until you recover.

Do medical insurance policies cover COVID-19?

On the 4th of March, the Insurance Regulatory and Development Authority of India (IRDAI) instructed all insurances to extend claims of hospitalisation or medical expenses incurred during the treatment of the novel coronavirus.

How does ICMR test for community transmission?

On the 15th of February, ICMR began testing 10 random samples in each of the 51 labs. As the virus started spreading aggressively the samples were increased to 20 and more. They have been testing asymptomatic people as reports suggested that the infection could travel through asymptomatic or mildly symptomatic people. ICMR is also testing people with no travel history to the coronavirus affected places to stop the chain of infection.

When should I get tested?

If you experience any flu-like symptoms such as dry cough, breathing difficulty, fever and fatigue it is advisable to see a doctor and get yourself tested.

If you have recently travelled and do not show any of these symptoms, you should self-monitor and self-isolate.

Conclusion

Testing allows people to know that they are infected and receive proper treatment. It also reduces the risk of others getting infected and thus slows down or prevents the spread of the disease.

Coronavirus is spreading at an alarming rate, and is something you should be cautious against! So, don’t leave space for any confusion! If you have medical queries on Coronavirus, call us on 080-47193456

 

REFERENCES

  1.     Quint
  2.     CDC

 

Stages of Coronavirus

Decoding the various stages of coronavirus

Stages of Coronavirus

Coronaviruses are viruses that can cause common cold, fever, cough and even severe diseases like acute respiratory syndrome and pneumonia. The virus was first identified in Wuhan, China. Almost 245,805 people are affected and more than 10,000 deaths have been reported worldwide. The World Health Organization (WHO) declared a public health emergency relating to COVID-19 and declared it to be a pandemic.

Transmission

COVID-19 spreads easily from person-to-person. While researches are still going on, it is believed that these viruses are transmitted through fluids in the respiratory system such as mucus. If a person coughs or sneezes without covering the mouth, droplets can disperse into the air. Touching or shaking hands with an infected person can lead to an exchange of the infection. Making contact with a contaminated surface or an object and then touching your face, nose, eyes or mouth can cause you to get infected. It can mutate effectively which is why it is so contagious.

What are the stages of COVID-19 and what does it mean?

There are four stages in COVID-19 transmission. Let’s understand the different stages of the spread of the virus:

Stage 1

This is when the disease is just introduced to the masses. In this stage, the virus has been transmitted by the people who are travelling from abroad. These are known as imported cases as the people who have travelled to foreign countries – places that have confirmed cases of the virus – come back to their native place.

Stage 2

As mentioned above, these cases include those people who have come in contact with those who have a travel history to coronavirus infected countries. This stage is known as a local transmission where one can trace the person who passed on the infection. It could possibly be a family member, friend or colleague.  This is a vital stage in understanding and preventing the spread of the virus.

Stage 3

In this particular stage, there is no way that the virus can be traced back to a certain person. This stage is community transmission where an infected person need not have to come in contact with anyone with a travel history to the countries affected by coronavirus. This involves large scale spread of the virus which needs to be avoided. This stage also makes it very difficult to break the chain of transmission and makes it harder to prevent the spreading of the disease.

Stage 4

This is a widespread outbreak of the disease where a large number of people get infected and a rising number of deaths take place. It turns into an epidemic without any clear end.

 

Diagnosis

If you develop symptoms of COVID-19 or have been exposed to the virus, seek medical attention. Your doctor will check and determine if you need to undergo tests.  To test for COVID-19, your doctor will take samples of your saliva, a nasal swab and throat swab. You may be suggested to self-isolate to prevent the spread of infection.

Treatment

While researchers all over the world are currently working on creating a vaccine for the virus and discovering a potential treatment for COVID-19, at the moment treatment is directed at relieving the symptoms of the disease with

  •         Pain relievers
  •         Medication and cough syrup
  •         Fluid intake
  •         Sufficient oxygen supply
  •         Adequate rest

In case of serious illness, one needs to be treated in the hospital. A person suffering from chronic diseases and older people with low immunity are vulnerable to the virus. They have a higher chance of respiratory problems and severe pneumonia.

Prevention

  • To prevent the infection from spreading, follow these guidelines –
  • Regular hand washing.
  • Use a handkerchief to cover your nose and mouth while coughing and sneezing.
  • Avoid stepping out unnecessarily.
  • Use a hand sanitiser with 60% alcohol content.
  • Do not come in close contact with people showing flu symptoms.
  • Clean and disinfect frequently touched objects and surfaces like doorknobs, light switches, desks, phones, etc.
  • In order to prevent transmission, you should wear a face mask if you are sick.

Conclusion

Researchers around the world are carrying out trials and tests to determine the treatment for the virus. While clinical drugs could take time, it is important that everyone must work together to control the spread of Covid-19.

Coronavirus is spreading at an alarming rate, and is something you should be cautious against! So, don’t leave space for any confusion! If you have medical queries on Coronavirus, call us on 080-47193456

REFERENCES

  1.     Mayoclinic
  2.     CDC